The first major battle of the Civil War was fought in Virginia, near the
Manassas, Virginia railway junction, after which the battle is called (or
First Bull Run, named after the flowing stream on the battlefield, if of the
Union persuasion). The armies in this first battle were not very large by
later Civil War standards. The Federal forces under Brigadier General
Irvin McDowell were organized into four divisions (five, if one includes
Runyan's division), of about 30,000 men. These divisions were
commanded by Tyler, Hunter, Heintzelman, (Runyan), and Miles. The
Confederate command structure was somewhat more unwieldy,
including two "armies", with no division structure and thirteen
independent brigades under Bonham, Ewell, Jones, Longstreet, Cocke,
Early, Holmes, Kershaw, Evans, Jackson, Bartow, Bee, Smith, and a
cavalry brigade under Stuart. The Confederate Army of the Potomac
was under the command of Brigadier General Pierre G. T. Beauregard,
and the Army of the Shenandoah was commanded by Brigadier General
Joseph E. Johnston. These two forces would equal McDowell's strength.
Interestingly enough, each commander had planned to initiate an attack
on the other side with a feint attack on the enemy's right flank and a
massed attack on the opposite flank. Had this been done
simultaneously, and both been successful in their purpose, the two
armies would have simply pivoted around each other and ended up in
each other's rear, able to march unopposed to Washington or
Richmond, as the case may be. As it turned out, the general least
successful in initiating this movement was the winner.
McDowell had planned to use Tyler's division as the diversionary attack
at the Stone Bridge, while Davies' brigade did the same at Blackburn's
Ford. At the same time, Hunter's and Heintzelman's divisions would
cross Bull Run at Sudley Springs and attack from the north.
McDowell's green troops involved in the flanking column, reached their
jumping off positions two and a half hours behind schedule. Tyler's and
Davies' attacks at the Stone Bridge and Blackburn's Ford were already
well under way, and the Confederate high command was beginning to
sense a ruse because the Union attacks were not pressed very hard.
When Beauregard was notified that Federal troops were massing on his
left flank, he realized that this must be the main attack so began to shift
his own troop dispositions.
The Federals had about 18,000 men in the main attack column and it
was only thanks to the quick reactions of Colonel "Shank" Evans and his
small brigade that Beauregard did not suffer a major disaster. He
quickly moved his small force to Matthew's Hill to block the Federal
move. Sounds of the fighting drew other brigade commanders to Evans'
aid on their own initiative. Brigadier General Barnard Bee and Colonel
Bartow joined Evans' defensive line and deployed their men to his right
to extend and strengthen it.
The Confederate position was still badly outnumbered however, and
eventually the weight of those numbers began to be felt. With Tyler's
division threatening the right flank and rear of the Confederate position
after having forced a crossing at the Stone Bridge, and their left flank
now being overlapped by Federal reinforcements, the three
Confederate brigades broke to the rear, heading toward the cleared
plateau of the Henry House Hill. Unfortunately for the Federals, they
were slow to follow-up their success and allowed the Southern brigade
commanders to rally the remnants of their units behind Jackson's
brigade which had just arrived and formed a line of battle on the reverse
slope of Henry House Hill.
In the meantime, McDowell ordered two artillery batteries to advance to
silence the defensive fire. Rickett's Battery and Griffin's Battery
advanced to well within musket range of the Confederate positions near
the crest of the hill. These batteries were counterattacked by
Confederate infantry and overrun and although it is still somewhat an
open question, most historians give credit to the 33rd Virginia Infantry,
although the 6th North Carolina State Troops, and elements of the 2nd
Mississippi Infantry also claim credit for silencing Ricketts. This
counterattack also routed the infantry supports to the guns -- a battalion
of U. S. Marines and the 11th New York Infantry, the famed Fire
Zouaves. The loss of the guns became a focal point for see-saw
attacks and counterattacks by each side, with the possession of the
guns changing hands several times.
Finally having accumulated enough units to not only stabilize the
Confederate lines, but also overlap the right flank of the Federal lines,
the order was given for a general advance by Beauregard. This attack
caved-in the Federal right and what began as a fairly orderly retreat
turned into a disorganized rout. The equally tired and inexperienced
Confederates however, were in no shape to conduct an effective
pursuit, so the battle ended. The Federals lost about 3,000 casualties
(killed, wounded, and captured or missing), and the Confederates
suffered about 2,000.
1st Manassas